Since Canada is a consitutional monarchy, the Sovereign (King or Queen) is our Head of State. But since the Sovereign is also the Head of State of 15 other countries*, it is impossible for him or her to be a part of everyday government functions. The Governor General, then, is the Sovereign's representative in Canada but is the ultimate authority in government for the nation. Ever since the Letters Patent of 1947, the Governor General has assumed all of the powers of the Sovereign. Even the presence of the Sovereign in the country does not superceed the authority of the Governor General and therefore the Governor General is 1st on the Canadian Order of Precedence.|
Roles and Responsibilities
The Governor General is selected by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the Sovereign to act as her representative in Canada. The appointment is usually for five years but has sometimes been extended to seven.
Bills passed in the House of Commons and Senate do not become law until the Governor General has given them royal assent. The Governor General executes all orders-in-council and other state documents, appoints all superior court judges (on the advice of Cabinet) and summons, prorogues, and dissolves Parliament (on the advice of the prime minister). Also, the Governor General invites the leader of the political party with the most support in the House of Commons to form a government. The Governor General also delivers the Speech from the Throne at the beginning of each parliamentary session.
The Governor General has two official residences. Rideau Hall (also known as the Government House) at 1 Sussex Drive in Ottawa across the road from 24 Sussex - the official residence of the prime minister. The other is La Citadelle on the grounds of the Canadian Forces Base in Quebec City. Both are pictured below.
* The Sovereign of Canada is also the Head of State of Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom.
|Rideau Hall||La Citadelle|
Her Excellency The Right Honourable Julie Payette, Governor General of Canada
From 1992 to 2013, Ms. Payette worked as an astronaut and flew two missions in space. She also served many years as CAPCOM (Capsule Communicator) at NASA’s Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas, and was Chief Astronaut for the Canadian Space Agency.
She is well respected for her work in developing policies to promote science and technology. From 2011 to 2013, she worked as a scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C., and was appointed scientific authority for Quebec in the United States. Between July 2013 and October 2016, she served as CEO of the Montréal Science Centre.
The Right Honourable
Ms. Payette is active in multiple facets of the community. She has produced several scientific outreach short programs on Radio-Canada and is a member of McGill University’s Faculty of Engineering Advisory Board. She has served on the boards of the Montréal Science Centre foundation, Robotique FIRST Québec, Drug Free Kids Canada, and the Montreal Bach Festival. She has long served on the board of Own The Podium, a granting organization dedicated to high performance sport in Canada, and has recently been appointed to the International Olympic Committee Women in Sports Commission. She has served as a Director of Développement Aéroport Saint-Hubert de Longueuil and of the National Bank of Canada.
Ms. Payette is a member of the Ordre des ingénieurs du Québec and a fellow of the International Academy of Astronautics. She obtained an International Baccalaureate from the United World College of the Atlantic in the United Kingdom, a Bachelor of Electrical Engineering from McGill University, and a Master’s in Computer Engineering from the University of Toronto. In addition, Ms. Payette can converse in six languages, holds a commercial pilot license and is an administratrice de sociétés certifiée (ASC is equivalent to the Institute of Corporate Directors, Director [ICD.D] designation).
Ms. Payette has received many distinctions and 27 honorary doctorates. She is a Knight of the Ordre national du Québec and an Officer of the Order of Canada.
The Governor General's Personal Flag
SOURCE: Government of Canada.
Former Governors General of Canada
Letters Patent Constituting the Office of Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada's Official Website